Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method that is used to determine whether there is evidence to support a claim made about a population. It is a three-step process:

  1. Formulate a hypothesis: The hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter that you want to test. It can be either a null hypothesis (H0), which is the statement that there is no difference between the observed value of the parameter and the hypothesized value, or an alternative hypothesis (H1), which is the statement that there is a difference.
  2. Conduct a statistical test: The statistical test is a procedure that is used to calculate the probability of obtaining the observed results if the null hypothesis is true. This probability is called the p-value.
  3. Make a decision: If the p-value is less than a predetermined significance level (usually 0.05), then you reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. Otherwise, you fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Hypothesis testing is used in a wide variety of fields, including science, engineering, business, and medicine. It is an essential tool for making informed decisions about populations.

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